Alishania elmohardyi gen. & sp. nov. (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) is described from montane forests near 2400 m on Taiwan. This monotypic genus has an unusual enlargement of the female terminalia to form a large, rounded and laterally expanded sclerotized cavity whose function is unclear. Alishania is probably derived from Chrysotimus Loew, based on head shape, thoracic and leg setation, antennal structure, and venation. The cosmopolitan genus Chrysotimus is reviewed and suggested to be paraphyletic.