A new species in the cephalaspidean family Diaphanidae, Toledonia warenella n. sp., is described from New South Wales, Australia. Three-dimensional, computer-aided reconstructions of the anatomy, based on serial histological sections, show that T. warenella n. sp. has some features in common with other diaphanids, including lack of jaws, gizzard plates, or an operculum. A gill was not detected in the mantle cavity, which is dominated by large, triangular, opposed ciliary bands and a kidney with lobed edges. The buccal mass is large with thick, muscular walls, perhaps indicative of a suctorial feeding behavior. Comparison with other diaphanid genera was hindered by lack of detailed published anatomical data, but shell and radula morphology suggests a close relationship between the new species and the polar genera Toledonia and Bogasonia (members of Toledoniinae), and for this reason, it is provisionally included in Toledonia. The systematics of Diaphanidae are addressed in the light of the anatomical data presented here.
Keywords: Mollusca;Cephalaspidea;3D reconstruction