This paper is an account of Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) collected from the Arctic and Northern Atlantic Oceans by Soviet expeditions. This material is part of the collection of the Department of Hydrobiology at Moscow State University and the Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. We redescribe eleven species: Chitinopoma serrula, Ditrupa arietina, Filograna implexa, Hyalopomatus claparedii, Hydroides norvegicus, Placostegus tridentatus, Pomatoceros triqueter, Protula globifera, P. tubularia, Protis arctica, and Serpula vermicularis. A new species from this collection, Metavermilia arctica, was described in a previous publication. Original illustrations and distribution maps accompany all descriptions. We provide two separate taxonomic keys to specimens and tubes. The previous records of arctic serpulids and the present state of the taxonomy of the family are discussed. Based on the operculum-bearing specimens of Protis arctica found, and on previous similar records, the taxonomic significance of the operculum in serpulids is further re-evaluated. As a result, Salmacina and Apomatus are considered synonyms of Filograna and Protula, respectively. We believe that many of the species and genera considered in this paper need revision.