This paper addresses the phylogeny of the superfamily Paratanaidoidea using computer-assisted parsimony methods. Our morphologically based, empirical analysis uses exemplar species from all families and most genera in the superfamily. Species of Apseudomorpha, Neotanaidomorpha and Tanaidoidea were employed as out-groups. The analysis supports most of the older systematics, including the monophyly of Paratanaididae, Leptocheliidae (in part), Nototanaididae, Pseudotanaididae and Pseudozeuxidae (excluding Heterotanaoides ). The analysis does not support the monophyly of Typhlotanaididae and Anarthruridae and suggests that both families be split up. The core genera of Typhlotanaididae are combined with the Nototanaididae under the name Nototanaididae. Other genera of Typhlotanaididae are left without family designation. Anarthruridae is divided into five families, Agathotanaididae, Anarthruridae, Leptognathiidae, Tanaellidae fam. nov. and Colletteidae fam. nov., but a large part of the anarthrurid genera could not be designated to families. The Leptocheliidae could neither be rejected nor verified but a subfamilial division (Heterotanaidinae subfam. nov. and Leptocheliinae) seems appropriate. A new proposal for the higher-level taxonomy of the Paratanaidoidea is presented. Many tanaidacean names have been corrected to make them agree with the presumed Latin stem 'tanaid-'.